Dr. Godfrey was internationally acclaimed for his research on rice and cotton. He was heavily involved in developing IPM to maintain the sustainability of California agriculture, seeking “to reduce the ‘footprint' of agriculture on the environment and society, and to advance the science of entomology and applied insect ecology.”
At UC Davis, he taught arthropod pest management and agricultural entomology. He developed IPM strategies for not only rice and cotton but for such field and vegetable crops as alfalfa, dry beans, timothy grass, melons, mint and onions.
A member of the entomology department since April 1991, Dr. Godfrey served as its vice chair in 2008, and also that year, as president of the Pacific Branch, Entomological Society of America.
“Larry was an outstanding contributor to the department, not only as a researcher and teacher, but also in the effective ways that he connected with clientele through outreach,” said Steve Nadler, professor and chair of the UC Davis Department of Entomology and Nematology. “He was a member of our department's Executive Committee and I could always count on Larry for sound advice.”
“Being the two Davis faculty with agricultural entomology extension duties, Larry and I shared a lot over the last 25 years and he was my closest colleague in our department when he passed today,” said Extension entomologist and distinguished professor Frank Zalom, an IPM specialist and a past president of the Entomological Society of America. “I've always respected him for being quiet and humble despite his many accomplishments. He filled the shoes of several faculty members who retired before he came to Davis and he did his job exceptionally well. It's hard for me to imagine not having him nearby as the go-to entomologist for field crops, although his research, extension, and, most importantly his graduate students, will serve as his legacy for years to come.”
Said professor Jay Rosenheim: “Larry was a researcher who always placed the farmer's needs first. This is why he was so highly valued by California's growers of rice, alfalfa, cotton, and vegetable crops, and why his research program grew and grew over his years at Davis. He was also an excellent communicator, and epitomized the role of researcher/educator in the Land-Grant system. Despite his illness, he continued to work tirelessly on his pest management research, refusing to compromise on his commitments. His dedication to our profession was truly remarkable.”
Yolo County Farm Advisor Rachael Long, who collaborated with Dr. Godfrey on dry bean research, said: “He was an incredibly dedicated field crop entomologist and terrific colleague with team spirit, and his loss leaves a big hole in our lives and I'll miss him.”
“What I admired about Larry was his stoicism,” said former graduate student Mohammad-Amir Aghaee, now a postdoctoral fellow at North Carolina State University. “Nothing seemed to wear down his resolve.”
Dr. Godfrey, born July 7, 1956, grew up on an Indiana farm, and was a 1974 graduate of Salem (Ind.) High School. He received two entomology degrees from Purdue University, West Layfayette: his bachelor's degree in 1978 and his master's degree in 1980. He earned his doctorate in entomology in 1984 from the University of Kentucky, Lexington, studying with major professor Kenneth Yeargan. He was a member of Phi Beta Kappa, Phi Kappa Phi, Sigma Xi and Gamma Sigma Delta.
Said Yeargan: "As I stated in my letter of recommendation for Larry many years ago when he applied for the position at UC Davis, Larry was an outstanding 'synthesizer' of information. He had a knack for looking at a problem, thinking through all the ramifications, and coming up with logical, practical ways to approach the problem – and usually finding a solution. He will be missed by many." It was at the University of Kentucky where Larry met his wife-to-be, Kris Elvin, then a postdoctoral scholar.
Dr. Godfrey began his career as a product development specialist for Union Carbide Agricultural Products Co., Inc., Research Triangle, N.C., before joining the University of Nebraska's Department of Entomology from July 1987 to March 1991 as a research associate.
“Growing up on a farm in Indiana, I saw first-hand the ‘battles' that farmers and homeowners face trying to produce crops and grow landscape plants in competition with insects,” Dr. Godfrey recalled in an earlier interview. “I became fascinated with insects through the typical ‘bug-in-a-jar' hobby. A county Natural Resources Field Day cultivated my interest in entomology and this led to enrollment in the 4-H entomology project. By the time I was several years into the 4-H project, I was transporting a dozen wooden collection boxes full of pinned insects to the county fair.”
“My first summer job involved surveying for Japanese beetles as they progressed across Indiana. This was an invasive insect in the Midwest in the mid-1970s; this same insect is of serious concern now in California an invasive pest that could damage many crops—such as grapes—and ornamentals—such as roses.”
Dr. Godfrey was one of 24 founding members of the California Invasive Species Advisory Committee, appointed by then Secretary A.G. Kawamura of the California Department of Food and Agriculture, to recommend “ways to mitigate non-native species' effects on resources throughout the state.” The goal: to protect California's environment, food systems, human health and economy from invasive and destructive pests, plants and diseases.
At UC Davis, Dr. Godfrey zeroed in on invasive insect and mite pests such as silverleaf whitefly, panicle rice mite, and rice water weevil. In addition, he targeted scores of pests, including alfalfa weevils, blue alfalfa aphids, spotted cucumber beetles, and two-spotted spider mites. He researched plant response to insect injury, refining economic thresholds.He also researched various pest management tactics, including biological control, reduced risk insecticides, mating disruption, cultural control, and host plant resistance.
Highly respected by his peers, Dr. Godfrey received the Excellence in IPM Award in 2005 from the Pacific Branch, Entomological Society of America (PBESA), followed by the PBESA Distinguished Achievement Award in Extension in 2010. Nationally, he was elected chair of ESA's Section F (crop protection) in 2002.
For many years, he served as the advisor to the UC Davis Linnaean Games teams, which won regional (PBESA) and national (ESA) championships in college-bowl type competitions involving insect questions. He himself was on the championship 1983 University of Kentucky team, the second annual Linnaean Games in the North Central Branch of ESA “where it all started,” he said. “It was a few years before the other branches started this competition and several years before they did it at the national meeting.”
As part of his Extension work, Dr. Godfrey wrote publications, regularly met with growers, and delivered scientific talks at workshops. He addressed the annual California Rice Field Day for 25 years and also spoke at alfalfa IPM workshops, among others. He was a subject editor for the Journal of Cotton Science and the Journal of Integrated Pest Management. In addition, Dr. Godfrey served on many departmental, college and UC Agriculture and Natural Resources committees.
Funeral services will be held Saturday, April 29 in Salem, Ind., where he grew up. In lieu of flowers, the family asks for donations to pet rescue groups or groups that support young people interested in entomology or agriculture. A memorial and celebration of his life will take place at UC Davis in the near future.
He is survived by his wife, Kris Godfrey; his mother, Laura Godfrey; and sister, Carol Green and family. He was preceded in death by his father, Don Godfrey.
The UC Davis Linnaean Games Team has successfully defended its national championship.
The team, comprised of three UC Davis Department of Entomology and Nematology graduate students, defeated the University of Georgia in the championship round.
The annual Linnaean Games, sponsored by the Entomological Society of America (ESA), took place at ESA's recent meeting in Orlando, Fla., held in conjunction with the International Congress of Entomology meeting.
UC Davis team members are captain Ralph Washington, a third-year graduate student; Brendon Boudinot, a third-year graduate student; and Emily Bick, a second-year graduate student. They defeated the University of Georgia, the 2012 winner, in the championship match (score, UC Davis 145; Georgia, 55). The UC Davis entomologists earlier outscored Ohio State University, North Carolina State University (champions in 2014), and Texas A&M in advancing to the finals.
Washington is studying for his doctorate with major professors Steve Nadler and Brian Johnson, who respectively specialize in systematics and evolutionary biology of nematodes and the evolution, behavior, genetics, and health of honey bees; Boudinot with major professor Phil Ward, systematics and evolutionary biology of ants; and Bick, with major professor Christian Nansen. Bick is working on ecosystem models to optimize pest management in two systems: invasive aquatic weed species water hyacinth and its biological control agent, Neochetina bruchi; and working to control Lygus bugs using alfalfa as a trap crop in strawberries. UC Davis Extension entomologist Larry Godfrey serves as the advisor.
- Question: “You have just moved into an apartment that has been vacant for weeks but whose prior owners had several cats and dogs. A very few days after you move in you are bitten by a huge number of cat fleas that seem to have appeared out of nowhere. What characteristic behavior of cat fleas biology is probably responsible for this?”
Answer: “Cat flea pupae eclose in response to the presence of a host.”
Question: Insects inhabiting a very thin water film such as splash zones marginal to streams are called what?
- Question: The insect order Notoptera unites what two former insect orders?
Answer: Notoptera unites Mantophasmatodea and Grylloblattodea
- Question: What are the two obvious clinical symptoms that someone is suffering from onchocerciasis?
Answer: Blindness and hanging tissue around lymph nodes, often times the scrotum.
- Question: What is the common name for the zygentoman pest that thrives in high humidity and high temperatures and is often found in boiler rooms?
Answer: The firebrat, Thermobia domestica.
- Question: Projection neurons travel across what two major regions of the insect brain?
Answer: The protocerebrum and the deutocerebrum.
(Editor's Note: The video of the 2016 Linnaean Games' championship match will soon be posted on the ESA YouTube channel. Meanwhile, here's a link to the 2015 championship game, won by UC Davis. https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL21ACF32985978D25
This was the inaugural meeting of the Grand Challenges in Entomology Initiative. ESA is committed to thinking and acting more globally, enhancing its influence by establishing a science policy program, identifying attainable challenges for entomology that could lead to sustainable solutions for some of the world's important insect-based problems, and more effectively communicating what entomologists do to improve the human condition. At the invitation-only Summit, the participants explored “three broad issues of major global importance to which entomology can make a unique and powerful contribution”:
- Sustainable agriculture – global hunger, food security, and natural resources preservation
- Public health related to vector-borne diseases
- Invasive insect species – global trade, biodiversity, and climate change
ESA president May Berenbaum, professor and department head, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, and Zalom welcomed the crowd.
Zalom co-chaired the Summit with
- Silvia Dorn, professor of applied entomology, ETH Zurich; past president of the Swiss Society of Phytomedicine; and fellow of the ESA, Royal Entomological Society, and International Society of Horticultural Sciences.
- Le Kang, director of the Institute of Zoology and president of Beijing Institutes of Life Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences; current president of the Entomological Society of China; and fellow of ESA and TWAS (formerly Third World Academy of Sciences)
- Antônio R. Panizzi, senior scientist, Embrapa and professor, Federal University at Curitiba; and former president of the Entomological Society of Brazil
- John Pickett, Michael Elliott Distinguished Research Fellow at Rothamsted Research; immediate past president of the Royal Entomological Society; and fellow of ESA and Royal Entomological Society
Introductory comments on behalf of the co-chairs emphasized that “leadership meetings such as this one provide an opportunity for connectivity among the world's entomology societies."
This was the very first International Entomology Leadership Summit at an ICE meeting. It was aimed at connecting leaders from the entomological community worldwide and discussing how entomologists "can make unique and powerful contributions toward solving some of the world's insect-based problems, a goal that can be achieved only through collaborative, international efforts," officials said. The last ICE meeting held in the United States (Washngton, D.C.) took place 40 years ago.
Chemical ecologist Walter Leal, distinguished professor in the UC Davis Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, co-chaired ICE 2016 with Alvin Simmons, research entomologist with the United States Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service (USDA/ARS), U.S. Vegetable Laboratory in Charleston, South Carolina.
Leal said that 6,682 delegates from 102 countries attended the historical ICE 2016 meeting in Orlando. “Alvin and I were very glad to hear about the level of satisfaction: 87 percent,” Leal said, adding that "we worked very hard to prepare for the Congress and promised it would be a historic event: mission accomplished!”
It's in the current edition of The American Entomologist.
The UC Davis team, captained by Mohammad-Amir Aghaee of the Larry Godfrey lab, included members Danny Klittich of the Michael Parrella lab; Jenny Carlson, Anthony Cornel lab; Margaret "Rei" Scampavia, Neal Williams/Edwin Lewis lab; and Ralph Washington Jr., Steve Nadler lab.
The UC Davis debate team was assigned the “con” side of the topic, “Neonicotinoids Are Causing the Death of Bees Essential for Pollinating our Food Crops. The Use of Neonicotinoids Should End.” Auburn (Ala.) University drew the “pro” side. UC Davis defeated Auburn University and then went on win the overall student debate championship in the six-team, three-topic competition.
The neonicotinoid debate drew widespread attention. Below are the summaries distributed here in open access, Creative Commons:
Neonicotinoids are causing the death of bees essential for pollinating our food crops. The use of neonicotinoids should end.
Washington State University
Honey bees, bumble bees, and solitary bees are among the important biotic couriers transporting pollen from the male anther to the female stigma of flowers, playing a fundamental role in the fertilization and fruiting of angiosperms. The mutualism between bee pollinators and flowering plants is essential to approximately 35% of global agriculture (Velthuis and van Doorn 2006, Klein et al. 2007) and critical to many aspects of native ecosystems worldwide. However, this critical link is threatened by the decline of bee populations. The source of bee decline is multi-faceted; suspected causes of colony collapse disorder (CCD) in honey bees include, but are not limited to, biotic factors such as parasitic mites, pathogens, and resource availability/diversity, as well as abiotic factors including climatic change, land-use change, pollution, and pesticides (Decourtye et al. 2010, Neumann and Carreck 2010, Kluser et al. 2011, Girolami et al. 2012). The decline of native North American pollinators has the potential to disrupt the integrity of ecosystems and agricultural prosperity (Cane and Tepedino 2001). Native bee decline could be due to a number of reasons: the establishment of monocultures and disturbance of their native habitat; disruption in the pattern of bloom; the replacement of native flora with crop plants; or widespread insecticide use (Cane and Tepedino 2001). Among the classes of insecticides registered today, neonicotinoids are one of the most used insecticides worldwide, and are at the forefront of the investigation to determine the contributing factors to CCD (Girolami et al. 2012).
Neonicotinoid insecticides are effective against a broad range of chewing and sucking insect pest species (Zhou et al. 2013) and are registered for use in a wide variety of crops, including cereals, corn, cotton, oilseed rape, sunflowers, and sugar beets. This insecticide can be applied as a highly effective systemic seed coating, in the form of foliar sprays, or incorporated as a soil drench (Elbert et al. 2008, Yang et al. 2008, Blacquiére et al. 2012). All neonicotinoids are agonists of the insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) (Matsuda et al. 2001, Elbert et al. 2008), causing excitation of the nervous system, paralysis, and eventually death of exposed, susceptible insects. While neonicotinoids are generally considered selective for insects and safe against mammals and birds, beneficial arthropods are still susceptible. Beneficial insects can come in contact with neonicotinoids if they feed on contaminated plant tissues or excretions, or are consequently exposed to the insecticide by ingesting contaminated prey (Prabhaker et al. 2011). When applied according to label instructions, neonicotinoids are not likely to come into direct contact with blooms, reducing contact with pollinators. However, neonicotinoids are highly potent and effective systemically; this class is highly soluble in water and can be moved by the plant translaminarly (Girolami et al. 2009).
Because of the value of pollination services provided by bees, and the widespread use of neonicotinoids, it is critical that the role of these pesticides in pollinator decline be determined. This will allow for informed decisions regarding future use of this class of pesticides.
Julian Golec, Matthew Burrows, C. Scott Clem, Adekunle Adesanya, Zi Ye, and Olufemi Ajayi
Advisor: David Held
Overwhelming evidence points to neonicotinoids as a critical factor in population declines of honey bees, bumble bees, and solitary bees (Sandrock et al. 2014). Neonicotinoids are the most widely used insecticide in agroecosystems due to their systemic properties (Hopwood et al. 2012), yet the impacts of neonicotinoids on bees extend beyond their use in agricultural settings. In urban settings, neonicotinoids can be applied at rates 120 times greater than those approved for agricultural settings (Hopwood et al. 2012). As a result, treated plants retain unmetabolized, active residues in virtually all plant parts, including pollen, nectar, and guttation fluids (Girolami et al. 2009). The effects of neonicotinoids vary based on the duration (acute or long-term exposure), route of exposure (oral or contact), and the bee species tested (Hopwood et al. 2012). In addition to outright mortality of individual bees, there are also sublethal effects implicated that affect bees at the colony level. For example, decreases in bumble bee queen production, pollen foraging efficiency, worker size, the rate of larval development, and learning abilities have all been implicated as sublethal effects of neonicotinoids (Decourtye et al. 2004, Gill and Raine 2014, Whitehorn et al. 2012). Additionally, these chemicals have been documented to affect immune responses in bees, making them more susceptible to pathogenic infections such as viruses and Nosema microspores (Alaux et al. 2010). Moreover, synergistic interactions between neonicotinoids and fungicides have been documented (Iwasa et al. 2004), which may indicate interactive effects with other chemical classes, increasing the negative impact on bees.
Current risk assessment protocols regarding the impacts of neonicotinoids on honey bees are insufficient, as they are focused on acute toxicity levels and do not incorporate various routes of exposure (Blacquiére et al. 2012). Shockingly, assessments for native bees are virtually nonexistent (Hopwood et al. 2012). Due to these factors, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has recently called for a review of the current protocols in order to develop new risk assessment parameters (EPA 2012). Ahead of the U.S., the European Union (EU) has temporarily banned the use of neonicotinoids until further research can address sublethal and synergistic effects (van der Sluijs et al. 2013). The U.S. should follow the efforts of the EU and temporarily ban the use of neonicotinoids before irreversible damage occurs to an already stressed food industry and an increasingly less diverse ecosystem.
Historically, the 1996 Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) restricted the use of toxic organophosphates, which lead to the creation of a new and presumably “safer” class of insecticides: the neonicotinoids (van Steenwyk and Zalom 2005). However, research has primarily focused on the European honey bee (Apis mellifera L.), and a few native bees (e.g. Osmia lignaria Say). It has since been found that the neonicotinoids are not a suitable alternative to older chemistries (Abbott et al. 2008). By using precedents set forth by the FQPA, the U.S. should temporarily cease the use of neonicotinoids until their effects at both the individual and colony levels can be thoroughly understood. We believe that a temporary ban on this insecticide class will lead to the discovery of new and safer insecticides, ultimately replacing the neonicotinoids.
Mohammad-Amir Aghaee, Jenny Carlson, Daniel Klittich, M. Rei Scampavia, and Ralph Washington, Jr. University of California, Davis
Advisor: Michael Parrella
However, the relationship between neonicotinoid use and pollinator decline remains disputed. Neonicotinoids were registered as reduced-risk pesticides because of their insect-specific action and low mammalian toxicity (van der Sluijs et al. 2013). They were selected to replace the organophosphates, carbamates, and pyrethroids, which have known non-target effects on humans and wildlife (Fairbrother et al. 2014).
Acute and chronic studies have shown that neonicotinoids are toxic to honey bees and bumble bees (Blacquiére et al. 2012). However, numerous studies implicating neonicotinoids as a cause of honey bee losses are insufficient in rigor and depth. Studies testing toxicity at field-realistic dosages between 1-10 ppb have shown inconsistent results (Cresswell et al. 2012). In addition, not all neonicotinoids have the same level of toxicity to bees. Acetamiprid and thiacloprid have an LC50 that is five orders of magnitude less toxic than clothianidin, thiamethoxam, and imidacloprid (Brown et al. 2014).
In addition, many other factors have been documented as contributing to pollinator decline (United States Department of Agriculture [USDA] 2013). Varroa destructor (Anderson and Trueman), a mite that feeds on the hemolymph of pupae and adult bees, vectors deformed wing virus and is a principal component of colony declines. Acaricides used to control Varroa are ubiquitous in wax comb of honey bee hives. These chemicals have been shown to compromise immune response in bees, impair honey bee behavior, and reduce the number of queens (Boncristiani et al. 2012). Pathogens such as Nosema ceranae (Fries) have impacted domesticated honey bee colonies, and N. bombi (Fantham and Porter) has wreaked havoc on native bumble bee populations (Mayack and Naug 2010, Evans and Schwarz 2011).
The lack of adequate nutrition further stresses colonies (Naug 2009). This results from a combination of habitat fragmentation and land-use changes that reduce the amount of wild forage available to honey bee colonies during periods of low food supply. Native pollinator populations are especially sensitive to habitat fragmentation and loss (Potts et al. 2010). This problem is compounded by the increasing demand for pollination services in agriculture (Aizen and Harder 2009).
Pollination demand created by almond production exemplifies the synergy of all these factors against honey bees. Every February, over two million colonies are moved to California to pollinate the almond bloom. Colonies are placed in staging areas at high concentrations and fed artificial diets to supplement a lack of natural forage (Fairbrother et al. 2014). These are optimum conditions for transmitting viruses and mites between colonies.
The best approach towards addressing pollinator declines would be to improve management practices to protect pollinators in crops (USDA 2013). This includes banning certain application strategies such as seed treatments. To this end, regulatory agencies need to have stricter registration guidelines that incorporate more comprehensive bee toxicity data, such as sublethal and synergistic effects on colonies, for all pesticides and methods of application (Hopwood et al. 2012). It is very important that growers are also educated on the proper use of these pesticides, which will prevent accidental losses of honey bees.
There is no definitive scientific evidence that neonicotinoids are the primary cause of pollinator declines. Given the current state of knowledge, banning neonicotinoids is a premature and disproportionate response to a complex issue. This issue requires holistic scientific inquiry and interpretation, and cooperation among stakeholders. Any changes must be based on science rather than opinion, current trends, or fear.
Doctoral candidate Roberta Tognon, who studied with integrated pest management specialist Frank Zalom, distinguished professor of entomology, UC Davis Department of Entomology and Nematology, will present a research paper from the Zalom lab at the Brazilian Entomological Society meeting March 16.
Tognon's presentation is on “Learning and Memory of Telemonus podisi Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) to Chemical Compounds from Halyomorpha halys Stal (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) eggs. She studies with major professor Josue Sant'Ana of the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul.
Both of the professors are attending the meeting.
Chemical ecologist Jeff Aldrich, an adjunct faculty member of the UC Davis Department of Entomology and Nematology (now retired from the USDA's Agricultural Research Service lab at Beltsville, MD.), is also a co-author on her paper.
Zalom traveled to Brazil to attend the Zika summit, which just ended. He was on stage at the Brazilian Entomological Society opening session to present a major award, as he did two years ago. Zalom is a past president of the 7000-member Entomological Society of America (ESA).
Canada's CDC covered the Zika summit and issued this report, headlined "Entomologists Bather in Brazil to Stop Zika Mosquito." Grayson Brown of the University of Kentucky, also an ESA past president and an organizer of the event, is quoted in the news story.