Many states have a designated state bird, flower, fossil, mineral, etc. In California, the state bird is the California Valley Quail, the state flower is the Golden Poppy, the state fossil is the Sabertoothed Cat, and the state mineral is Native Gold. The state rock is Serpentine which contains chrysolite asbestos which is a carcinogen. It's a beautiful rock, though.
The state soil is the San Joaquin series. The series concept is that a given soil has certain properties like pH, depth, color, texture, etc. that distinguishes it from other “soils” or series. So wherever this soil is found it is given the same name. San Joaquin series is a soil that is found primarily along the foothills of the Sierras in the Central Valley. The name comes from where it is first described, in this case, San Joaquin, but it is found in other places. Yolo series is named after a soil on the campus at UC Davis in Yolo county, but it is also found in San Diego county, and in other states.
A description of the state soil can be found at the link below, as well as the state soils in other states:
Soils can be highly variable depending on the context in which they are found. Going to flat old Kansas which is actually flatter than a pancake (http://www.usu.edu/geo/geomorph/kansas.html), the variability from spot to spot across miles can be minimal. But going to a place like Ventura, Santa Barbara, San Luis Obispo Counties of the Sierra foothills, you can't step on the same soil twice. That's because of the terrain and landforms. Where there is natural erosion (yes, it doesn't take humans to cause erosion) or accelerated erosion (this is where humans have often changed the landscape with roads, houses, removing ground cover) soil gets moved around and deposited in different positions and over time forms different soils with different properties. On large tracts of land that have not been altered much, such as avocado orchards, the naturally formed soils can be seen. In a housing tract where soil has been moved around to level and compact housing pads, it is often hard to find a natural soil because it is so highly disturbed. The soil can have been moved from one end of a 100 acres tract to the other with big equipment. It's all one big homogenous mix down to several feet at times depending on the slope.
In many cases, it is still possible to see the natural soils and knowing their series classification, it's possible to learn some of the properties and some of the problems that will be encountered when working with them. Knowing the pH prior to working it means that it could be adjusted before planting. It's a whole lot easier to adjust before planting than when the plants are in the ground.
You can see the soils in your area by going to the USDA-NRCS (Natural Resources Conservation Service) website - https://websoilsurvey.sc.egov.usda.gov/App/HomePage.htm - and typing in the area code to find the soil at a given site. It probably isn't the state soil series, but it's your soil series.
For a great text on understanding soils, check out Soils: An Introduction by Michael Singer and Don Munns.
The rootstocks ‘Bitters', ‘Carpenter' and ‘Furr citrandarins were developed at the USDA Date and Citrus Station in Indio, California. Having mandarin genetics with different horticultural properties and being more tolerant of calcareous soils than some other commonly used rootstocks, their effect on ‘Pixie' mandarin is being evaluated. These three are being compared to the mildly dwarfing ‘C-35' rootstock and to the standard sized ‘Citrumelo' to see how their growth might be used to control tree size, also to see how well they do in an alkaline soil. In 2014, five of each of the rootstock/'Pixie' combinations were planted in randomized blocks at two different sites on mildly alkaline soils (pH 7.3 -7.8) in the Ojai, CA area. Trees were monitored for growth on a yearly basis. At both sites ‘Citrumelo' is the largest in height with the greatest shoot length. All three of citrandarins are smaller than ‘C-35” at both sites. Shoot length is the shortest for ‘Bitters', ‘Carpenter' and ‘C-35' at both sites. At the site with the highest soil pH (7.8), two of the five ‘Bitters' show iron and zinc chlorosis. The only trees to do so. This trial will be monitored for another five years to evaluate their performance. Growth characteristics on other varieties of citrus, such as orange and lemon will probably be the same.
Photo: A young Pixie on Bitters.
- Author: Ramadugu, Keremane, Halbert, Duan, Roose, Stover and Lee
Citrus huanglongbing (HLB) is a destructive disease with no known cure. To identify sources of (HLB) resistance in the subfamily Aurantioideae to which citrus belongs, we conducted a six-year field trial under natural disease challenge conditions in an HLB endemic region. The study included 65 Citrus accessio9ns and 33 accessions belonging to 20 other closely related genera. For each accession, eight seedling trees were evaluated. Based on quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of the pathogen titers and disease symptoms, eight disease-response categories were identified. We report two immune, six resistant and 14 tolerant accessions. Resistance and tolerance observed in different accessions may be attributed to a multitude of factors, including psyllid colonization ability, absence of pathogen multiplication, transient replication of the bacterium, lack of paht\\thogen establishment in the plant, delayed infection, or recovery from infection. Most citrus cultivars were considered susceptible: 15 citrons, lemons and limes retained leaves in spite of the disease status. Resistance and high levels of field tolerance were observed in many non-citrus genera. Disease resistance/tolerance was observed in Australian citrus relative genera Eremocitrus and Microcitrus. which are sexually compatible with citrus and may be useful in future breeding trials to impart HLB resistance to cultivated citrus.
2016 The American Phytopathological Society, vol. 100, N0. 9, p 1858-1868
Photo: Starch Accumulation in Infected Leaves
Topics in Subtropics
January - March Topics in Subtropics 2017
In this issue:
- Revisiting an old study on high density citrus orchards
- Shoot and Twig Dieback in Citrus
- Alternative Crops or ......
- Referendum Comments Citrus Research Board
A new ruling from CDFA to modify the announcement from March 2. Read on:
CDFA suspends enforcement of new citrus rule
The California Department of Food and Agriculture announced March 2 that it was suspending enforcement of a new regulation regarding transport of bulk citrus, the day after the new rule took effect.
The department said "the decision was made as a courtesy to the citrus industry to allow for additional time to prepare citrus operations to comply with the new rule, which requires all bulk citrus loads to be fully covered regardless of the origin or the destination. Additionally, CDFA is continuing to process and return compliance agreements."
Although enforcement has been suspended indefinitely, CDFA is expecting haulers to voluntarily abide by the new rule. Compliance can be achieved several ways, including but not limited to the use of a shipping container, tarp, enclosed vehicle (including curtain vans), or another method that completely covers bulk citrus during transport. If using a tarp, tarps must reach the bed of the truck.
From March 2, 2017
From AgNet West, http://agnetwest.com/2017/02/27/citrus-tarping-starts-march-1/
As of March 1, 2017, all citrus loads traveling throughout the state of California have to be tarped. This regulation aims to reduce the accidental transportation of the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP).
The Citrus Pest and Disease Prevention Program (CPDPP) is helping to get the word out about the new regulation. “That regulation is stating that every load, regardless of origin or destination, must be tarped,” CPDPP Grower Liaison Erin Betts said. “You don't have to use a tarp. You can use a van or something that is completely covered on all four sides, down to the bed.”
Counties north of the grapevine region have been noticing a trend with ACP finds in the area, and the new tarping regulation hopes to limit some of the accidental transportation the industry is seeing. “When we started having finds, they were all along the major transportation corridors,” Betts said. “So if we cover these loads that are coming and going from wherever, we are preventing that psyllid from hopping off … at a stop light or a stop sign in the middle of the Citrus Belt, Kern County or anywhere.”
All citrus loads being transported in California will now have to be fully covered by tarps. The state passed an emergency law that makes tarping mandatory in an attempt to reduce the accidental spread of the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP).
From the Citrus Pest and Disease Prevention Program (CPDPP):
The California Office of Administrative Law approved an emergency rule that requires all bulk citrus loads to be fully tarped during transport regardless of where the load originates from or its destination. The statewide mandatory tarping regulation is in response to a recommendation from the Citrus Pest and Disease Prevention Committee (CPDPC) to prevent the spread of the Asian citrus psyllid. The California Department of Food and Agriculture will begin contacting growers, haulers and packers to re-sign compliance agreements that include the tarping requirement. These entities are urged to begin preparations now while they wait to receive new compliance agreements.
Why did the Citrus Pest & Disease Prevention Committee ask for a mandatory tarping regulation?
The statewide mandatory tarping regulation is a preventive action to address the spread of the Asian citrus psyllid, and is in response to an analysis conducted by the University of California that looked at Asian citrus psyllid find patterns along transportation corridors. As the number of psyllid finds increase in commercial citrus regions and along major transportation corridors, the CPDPC felt the action was a necessary step to help prevent the spread of Huanglongbing – the deadly citrus tree disease that the psyllid can carry.
What are the regulatory requirements?
The new requirement is a statewide regulation that restricts the movement of regulated articles from “or within” a quarantine area. Revised compliance agreement exhibits will require all bulk citrus loads to be fully tarped regardless of where the load originates from or its destination, even loads that are traveling within a county. Specifics of the requirements will be released soon. In the meantime, producers can review USDA's tarping compliance requirements for general guidelines. Read the full press release from the CPDPP.
New tarping rules are in effect for California citrus. The industry must comply, or it will face costly penalties. Tarping fines could add up to $10,000.
A new regulation requires citrus loads to be tarped or fully enclosed as they travel through the state. “There were new compliance agreements that were mailed out,” Citrus Pest and Disease Prevention Program Grower Liaison Erin Betts said. “The new regulation states that every load, regardless of origin or destination, must be tarped.”
Betts said not complying with the new rules can be very costly. “The fine is not only for if you don't have your load tarped properly, but also if you do not have your compliance agreement with you,” Betts said. “That violation could be up to $10,000.”
According to Betts, the industry has many ways to make sure they are properly complying with the regulation. “(The industry) can contact the county, local grower liaisons and also the California Department of Food and Agriculture.”