Selling Locally Grown Meat
ALERT - Proposed Changes to National Organic Program
USDA AMS Publishes Proposal Amending Animal Handling Rules for Organic Meat and Poultry: The USDA Agricultural Marketing Service published its previously announced proposed rule that, if finalized, would amend organic livestock and poultry production requirements (see also Q&A). The proposed rule would add new provisions for livestock handling and transport for slaughter, living conditions and health care practices. The North American Meat Institute developed a memo detailing the specific provisions included in the proposed rule, and possible implications of the rule. Learn more at USDA Organic Livestock & Poultry Practices.
Have a question? Ask the Ag Ombudsman
Figure 1 diagram for livestock slaughter transactions in California from Selling Meat and Meat Products, ANR Publication 8146.
Poultry Meat Products (chicken, ducks, turkeys, geese, other domesticated birds and rabbits) raised by the seller or a known source, maybe sold at farmers market if animals were slaughtered at USDA, USDA exempt or CDFA/MPES licensed facilities, and they are properly labeled.
Table 1 summarizes where species must be harvested and processed in order to be eligible for retail sale in California:
United States Dept of Ag-USDA Inspected Facilities
USDA, CA Dept of Food & Ag-CDFA or
Beef, Lamb, Pork, Goat
Chickens, Ducks, Geese, Turkeys and Other Domesticated Birds, Rabbits, Non-Amenable species+
|*These species may be voluntarily processed at a USDA inspected facility. Poultry and rabbits may also be processed by the grower under an exemption (MPES inspected).|
Map and Listing of USDA and CDFA licensed meat processing facilities in California (please call the firm to verify accuracy of information found on map).
Labeling Requirements for Meat
Each package of meat must include a label with the following:
- Name and place of business of the seller
- Accurate declaration of the quantity of the contents
- USDA/CDFA inspection legend (Table 2)
- The common name of the food (species and cut/description)
- The label of any cut of beef, veal, lamb, or pork should identify the species, and must identify cut from which it is derived (i.e. Loin, flank, chuck/shoulder), and the retail name if applicable (i.e. tri-tip) .
Table 2 identifies the inspection legends required for meats eligible for retail sale:
|Type of Meat||Inspection Legend Required||Sell at Farmers Market|
|Cuts of Beef, Veal, Lamb, Pork||USDA||Yes|
Sausage, jerky and other cured/dried meats
|USDA or CDFA*
eXtension: Further Processed Meat Products
Poultry & Rabbits
USDA, CDFA, “Exempt P.L. 90-942” or no legend
Wild deer, bison, bison, domestic deer, pheasant, quail, and captive raised waterfowl, and other exotics
|If no inspection legend,
it is up to the farmers market manager.
* CDFA Commercial Kitchen Requirements Policy. CDFA licensed retail facilities (referred to by USDA as 'retail exempt') may only sell cooked, cured, smoked, rendered or otherwise processed meat to household consumers. CDFA licensed retail facilities may cut up, trim, slice, grind, freeze products from meat and sell to household and non-household consumers within the limits set out in 9 CFR 303.1 (d)(2)(ii) and(iii) 75% to household consumers, 25% up to max $ allowed to non-hh (max $ adjusted annually).
A marketing label, for example, “grass-fed, no antibiotics, etc” must meet United States Standards for Livestock and Meat Marketing Claims. To learn more about labeling visit FSIS Labeling Guidelines. (Food Safety and Inspection Service Labeling Guideline on Documentation Needed to Substantiate Animal Raising Claims for Label Submissions, Sept 2016).
Grass Fed: visit CSU Chico's Product Labeling page.
Organic: The term “organic” can only be used if registered by CDFA. USDA's Guide for Organic Livestock Producers.
- Registration: in California, registration is required for all entities that raise, grow, store, transport and sell organic products.
CDFA Organic Registration is required of every entity engaged in production or handling of raw organic products. This includes diary and meat except for processed dairy and meat products.
- Certification: If gross sales of organic product exceeds $5,000 or if the business wants to use the USDA Organic seal, they must obtain organic certification from an approved third party certifier, also found on USDA Ag Marketing Service Certifier Locator.
Grass Fed Small and Very Small Producer Program: In 2014, USDA Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) rolled out this new program for operations that sell up to 49 cattle per year or lambs from up to 99 producing ewes per year. This self reporting certification program was originally designed for producers that sell grassfed livestock to larger operations to finish, but is also being used by producers that raise and finish grass fed livestock. Visit the site above for application and more information.
FSIS Labeling Procedures: As of November 2013, USDA FSIS (Food Safety & Inspection Service) expanded label claims that must be submitted to them for approval:
Labels that ALWAYS need to be submitted to the FSIS for approval (9 CFR 412.1):
See USDA FSIS Labeling Compliance Guidance, Nov 2013, for complete details.
- Temporary approvals
- Labels for export only that bear labeling deviations
- Religious exemption, e.g., Buddhist exemptions, Confucian exemptions
- Labels bearing special statements and claims
Because the meat being sold is from an approved source (USDA or CDFA harvested, processed and labeled as outlined above) a permit from Sonoma County Environmental Health & Safety is not required.
Meat must be stored and displayed at or below 41° at all times. The packages can be fresh or frozen. The Sonoma County Environmental Health & Safety inspects CFMs to insure and verify the meat is being stored and displayed safely.
Per USDA FSIS: There are no regulations regarding the length of time products can be sold. They must remain wholesome. When frozen, it will primarily be quality that will be affected, not safety.
HACCP Plan for Meat Processors - Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point is the processed used to determine food safety hazards reasonably likely to occur in production of meat processing and identifies preventive measures. Visit eXtension's Food Safety/HACCP page to learn more. Local food scientist Richard Stier may also be a good resource.
Meat Storage & Transportation
You are allowed to store unsold meat on your ranch and to transport it, provided you have the facilities to do that and keep the meat at temperatures as outlined above.
If you only are selling meat to the end consumer, USDA registration is not required.
However, if you are selling the meat to a wholesaler or it will be re-sold at a store, restaurant or other, your meat storage facility is required to be registered with the USDA. This registration is FREE. Meat (including poultry) must be stored in a USDA approved facility and transported by a business/individual that is registered with USDA.
NOTE: Registration is not required for those transporting federally inspected meat and/or poultry products unless the transporter is also the broker, manufacturer, public warehouse or wholesaler.
Complete this form to become a storage facility of meat for human consumption:
California Code of Regulations § 1392.4, Conditions of Direct Marketing
California Health & Safety Code Division 104, Part 5 - Sherman Food, Drug & Cosmetic Law. Section 110800 labeling requirements.
Environmental Health Requirements for Certified Farmers’ Markets California Conference of Directors of Environmental Health, revised July 2008, page 2, Definitions
Meat Marketing Claims United States Standards for Livestock and Meat Marketing Claims
North American Meat Association's Meat Experts - get answers meat regulation related questions.
Poultry Products Inspection Act USDA Guidance for Determining Whether a Poultry Slaughter or Processing Operation is Exempt from Inspection Requirements of the Poultry Products Inspection Act
Product Labeling labeling standards
Selling Meats & Meat Products UC ANR Publication 8146
Small Plant News by USDA Food Safety & Inspection Service
Specific information contained herein has been verified by the Sonoma County Department of Agriculture, the Sonoma County Department of Health Services and the California Department of Food & Agriculture.
Created and revised by Karen Giovannini, Agriculture Ombudsman, UCCE Sonoma County.