Between 1990 and 2013, the LEP population grew 80 percent from nearly 14 million to 25.1 million (see Figure 1). The growth of the LEP population during this period came largely from increases in the immigrant LEP population. The most dramatic increase occurred during the 1990s as the LEP population increased 52 percent. The growth rate then slowed in the 2000s and the size of the LEP population has since stabilized. Over the past two decades, the LEP share of the total U.S. population has increased from about 6 percent in 1990 to 8.5 percent in 2013.
Immigrants to the United States come from many different language backgrounds and may be in various stages of English proficiency. Of the total immigrant population of 41.3 million in 2013, about half was LEP.
Compared to the English-proficient population, the LEP population was less educated and more likely to live in poverty. Employed LEP men in 2013 were more likely to work in construction, natural resources, and maintenance occupations than English-proficient men, while LEP women were much more likely to be employed in service and personal-care occupations than English-proficient women.
As of 2013, the highest concentrations of LEP individuals were found in the six traditional immigrant-destination states—California (6.8 million, or 27 percent of the total LEP population), Texas (3.4 million, 14 percent), New York (2.5 million, 10 percent), Florida (2.1 million, 8 percent), Illinois (1.1 million, 4 percent), and New Jersey (1 million, 4 percent). Together, the top six states accounted for approximately two-thirds of the LEP population.
Eleven states had a higher share of LEP residents than the nationwide proportion of 8 percent. California had the highest share, with LEP individuals accounting for 19 percent of the state population.
The foreign-born population was much more likely to have limited English proficiency than the native-born population. In 2013, about 50 percent of immigrants (20.4 million) were LEP, compared to 2 percent of the U.S.-born population.
In 2013, 81 percent of LEP individuals were immigrants. Of the total foreign-born LEP population, 39 percent were born in Mexico, followed by China (6 percent), El Salvador (4 percent), Vietnam (4 percent), Cuba (3 percent), and the Dominican Republic (3 percent). Foreign-born LEP individuals were less likely than the overall immigrant population to be naturalized citizens (36 percent versus 47 percent, respectively).
Of native-born LEP individuals, 14 percent were born in Puerto Rico and less than 2 percent were born in Mexico to at least one U.S.-citizen parent. Three percent were born abroad elsewhere to at least one U.S.-citizen parent, with the remaining 82 percent born in one of the 50 U.S. states or the District of Columbia.
Spanish was the predominant language spoken by both immigrant and U.S.-born LEP individuals. About 64 percent (16.2 million) of the total LEP population spoke Spanish, followed by Chinese (1.6 million, or 6 percent), Vietnamese (847,000, 3 percent), Korean (599,000, 2 percent), and Tagalog (509,000, 2 percent). Close to 80 percent of the LEP population spoke one of these five languages.
There were marked differences, however, in the top languages spoken by LEP persons by nativity. 3, 77 percent (3.6 million) of the U.S.-born LEP population spoke Spanish, followed by German (140,000, or 3 percent), Chinese (116,000, 2 percent), French (82,000, 2 percent), and Vietnamese (80,000, 2 percent). Spanish was also the predominant language, spoken by about 62 percent (12.5 million) of immigrant LEP individuals. However, Asian languages were more likely to be spoken by the foreign-born LEP population, including Chinese (1.5 million, or 7 percent), Vietnamese (767,000, 4 percent), Korean (564,000, 3 percent), and Tagalog (484,000, 2 percent).
Age, Race, and Ethnicity
Compared to their English-proficient counterparts, LEP individuals were much less likely to be of school age and much more likely to be of working age. In 2013, 10 percent of LEP individuals were children between the ages 5 and 17, versus 19 percent of the English-proficient population.
LEP individuals were much more likely to be Latino or Asian than their English-proficient counterparts. While Latinos comprised 63 percent of the LEP population, they accounted for only 12 percent of the English-proficient population. Likewise, 21 percent of LEP individuals were Asian compared to only 4 percent of English-proficient individuals.
Education and Employment
In general, LEP adults were much less educated than their English-proficient peers. As of 2013, 46 percent of all LEP individuals ages 25 and over had no high school diploma compared to 10 percent of their English-proficient counterparts. About 14 percent of LEP adults had a bachelor's degree or higher, compared to 31 percent of English-proficient adults.
LEP Children and English Language Learners
In 2013, of the 51.3 million children ages 5 to 17 in the United States, approximately 8 million (16 percent) lived with at least one LEP parent.
Among the 2.3 million children who were themselves LEP, 23 percent were foreign born. The remaining 77 percent (1.8 million) were U.S. born, with 77 percent (1.4 million) having at least one immigrant parent.
Source: Migration Policy Institute, The Limited English Proficient Population in the United States, July 8, 2015.
That puts the U.S. second to its neighbor to the south, Mexico and ahead of Colombia, where Spanish speakers total 121 million and 46 million respectively, the Guardian reported.
According to the report, Spanish was the native tongue of 470 million people worldwide this year and some 559 million have some usage of the language, either because they are native speakers, have some proficiency or are learning the language.
In May, Pew Research Center's Hispanic Trends reported that English use was increasing among Latinos in the U.S. Meanwhile, the share of Hispanics who speak Spanish at home had been declining for the past 13 years. Despite the decline, a record 35.8 million Latinos speak Spanish at home. The record increases while there is a decline because of the growth in the Latino population.
Source: Originally published on CBS News as U.S. is the No. 2 Spanish-Speaking Country in the World, Jun 29 2015
But a new paper, recently published in Contemporary Economic Policy (pdf), sheds light on the reasons why—and why this disparity matters.
Analysts polled a representative group of more than 1,000 participants in 2009, asking a number of questions about water consumption as well as attributes of bottled water in terms of taste, safety and convenience. Researchers confirmed that Black and Hispanic respondents were much more likely to drink bottled water and believe it was safer.
“The preferences of these minority groups are not driven by concerns about convenience, but rather perceptions about water quality,” the study said.
The economists then included data from the US Environmental Protection Agency on water quality violations for states, and found that people who lived in states with more water quality violations were indeed more likely to drink bottled water. The authors then presented indirect evidence in the form of previous research from the American Housing Survey (tables) that said Blacks and Hispanics are overrepresented as a share of those living with unsafe drinking water. They wrote:
For owner-occupied units, the percentage of housing units with unsafe drinking water from their primary source is 6% for the population overall, 9% for Blacks, and 16% for Hispanics. For renter-occupied units, the corresponding percentages are even higher—11% overall, 11% for Blacks, and 21% for Hispanics.
These findings are consistent with previous studies. For instance, a 2011 study published in JAMA Pediatricsfound African-American and Latino parents were more likely to give their children mostly bottled water. And a separate paper published in 2007found that many Latino families don't drink tap water because of concerns that it could cause illness.
“We now have an understanding of why people do this,” said Joel Huber, a marketing professor at Duke University's Fuqua School of Business, a co-author on the paper.
Of course, these results are based on broad aggregates, which mean they may not hold true for any individual. Still, such findings matter.
For instance, if policy makers want to use taxes to discourage bottled water consumption for environmental reasons, it means the tax would fall hardest on Blacks and Latinos.
There might also be public health implications, not so much related to bottled water consumption, but to aversions to cheaper tap water. Some studies have linked mistrust of tap water to lower consumption of water, and increased consumption of sugary drinks.
Source: Published originally on Quartz.com as Blacks and Hispanics drink more bottled water. Economists now know why, by Matt Phillips, June 29, 2015.
Muchos de los jóvenes que empiezan a trabajar conocen muy poco sobre la preparación de alimentos.
Pero esto no les sucede a quienes se inscriben en el programa de nutrición que ofrece el programa de Desarrollo Juvenil 4-H de la División de Agricultura y Recursos Naturales de la Universidad de California (UC ANR). Niños que apenas tienen cinco años aprenden cómo preparar alimentos nutritivos y saludables.
Y sí, también aprenden cómo preparar postres, como golosinas especiales para su familia y amigos para el Día de las Brujas.
Julianna Payne, ex embajadora All Star del programa 4-H del condado de Solano, estaba tan interesada en el proyecto de nutrición ofrecido por el Club 4-H de Sherwood Forest, de Vallejo, que planeó su carrera en artes culinarias.
"Allí fue donde encontré mi amor por la cocina y en especial por la repostería, dijo Payne, de 19 años, quien acaba de completar su décimo cuarto año en 4-H, incluyendo 10 en el área de alimentos y nutrición.
El programa 4-H es administrado por las oficinas de Extensión Cooperativa de UC ANR en cada todos los condado de California. El programa se enfoca en las áreas de liderazgo y habilidades de vida.
"Yo creo que una de las habilidades de vida más importantes para una persona es saber cómo cocinar para sí misma", mencionó Julianna.
Payne, quien se graduó de la preparatoria en el 2014, se encuentra en su segundo año en el colegio comunitario de Solano, en Fairfield. Ella planea asistir a una escuela culinaria del área en la próxima primavera para obtener un título técnico en panadería y repostería.
"Durante mis diez años en el proyecto de nutrición preparé tantas cosas que ni siquiera puedo empezar a contar”, dijo Payne. "He hecho cosas tan sabrosas como tamales, empanadas, raviolis y chiles y cosas dulces como corteza de menta, bollos de calabaza, dulce de tofi y pastelitos de chocolate y naranja".
Julianna, quien se unió a programa 4-H cuando tenía cinco años, fue presidenta de su club durante tres años. Su experiencia, entusiasmo y compromiso hacia 4-H le valió ser elegida para recibir el honor más grande de 4-H en el condado: Embajadora All Star de 4-H del condado de Solano.
Su madre, Sharon Payne, es una ex lider comunitaria del Club 4-H de Sherwood Forest y ex presidenta del Consejo de Líderes de 4-H del condado de Solano.
“El programa 4-H es una organización de desarrollo juvenil fantástica que enseña destrezas de vida y civismo a los jóvenes”, indicó Sharon Payne, voluntaria de 4-H desde hace 13 años. “Dentro de sus proyectos, los jóvenes pueden aprender sobre cualquier tema que les interese, desde alimentos hasta computadoras o animales y robots. El trabajo de proyecto estimula sus intereses y destrezas y puede introducir a los jóvenes a carreras que en otras circunstancias no hubieran ni siquiera considerado”.
Valerie Williams, representante del programa 4-H del condado de Solano, dijo: “El Programa de Desarrollo Juvenil 4-H cuenta con una larga historia de promover una vida saludable entre los jóvenes y sus familias. El enfoque de muchos programas de 4-H es reconectar a los jóvenes a un sistema alimentario saludable y enseñarles cómo cultivar y preparar alimentos frescos. Los líderes voluntarios adultos de 4-H proveen servicios de tutoría a los miembros de 4-H, lo cual juega un papel vital al enseñarles a elegir una carrera y lograr el éxito”.
Y en lo que concierne a Julianna Payne, ella continua puliendo sus destrezas. Sometió sus pastelitos de chocolate/naranja y sin gluten a la Feria del Condado de Solano, en Vallejo y recibió muy buenas críticas de los jueces, personal y voluntarios que los probaron.
Muy pronto, ella estará enseñando a otros miembros de 4-H de la misma forma en la que a ella le enseñaron.
“Planeo regresar a 4-H lo recibido convirtiéndome en líder del proyecto este año", señaló Julianna. "Voy a enseñar un proyecto sobre pastelitos para niños de cinco a ocho años en el Club 4-H de Sherwood Forest".
Aquí está la receta:
Pastelitos sin gluten de chocolate y naranja con glaseado de queso crema con naranja, decorados con chocolate y cáscara de naranja caramelizada
Para los pastelitos:
2 tazas de azúcar
3/4 taza de coco en polvo
1 cucharadita de sal
1/2 taza de aceite vegetal
2 cucharadas de ralladura de naranja
1 cup agua hirviendo
1-3/4 tazas de harina regular sin gluten
1-1/2 cucharaditas de polvo para hornear
1-1/2 cucharaditas de bicarbonato
1/2 taza de leche
1/2 taza de jugo de naranja fresco
2 cucharaditas de extracto de vainilla
- Caliente el horno a 350°F. Cubra alrededor de 30 moldes para pastelitos (2 ½ pulgadas de diámetro) con forros de papel para pastelitos.
- Mezcle bien el azúcar, harina, coco, polvo para hornear, bicarbonato y sal en un tazón. Agregue los huevos, leche, aceite, jugo de naranja, leche, aceite, ralladura de cáscara de naranja y vainilla; bata a velocidad media con una batidora eléctrica durante dos minutos. Agréguele el agua hirviendo (la mezcla se vuelve menos espesa).
- Llene los moldes hasta 2/3 partes con la mezcla.
- Hornee de 22 a 25 minutos o hasta que al introducir un palillo en el centro de los pastelitos salga limpio. Enfríe completamente en el mismo molde o sobre una parrilla de metal. Rinde para más o menos 30 pastelitos.
Para el glaseado:
- 4 onzas de mantequilla sin sal, suavizada
- 4 onzas de queso crema, suavizado
- 2 tazas de azúcar glas
- 1 cucharadita de extracto de vainilla
- 2 cucharaditas de jugo de naranja fresco
- 1 cucharada de ralladura de cáscara de naranja
En un tazón grande, bata la mantequilla y el queso crema con una batidora eléctrica. Manteniendo una velocidad baja, incorpore el azúcar una taza a la vez hasta lograr una mezcla suave y cremosa. Agréguele la vainilla, jugo de naranja y ralladura.
Para el adorno:
- 3 onzas de chocolate semi amargo para hornear
- 1 taza de agua
- 1 taza de azúcar
- 1 naranja
Derrita el chocolate en un tazón a baño María. Decore los pastelitos con el chocolate. Pele la naranja y corte la cáscara en tiras de ¼ de ancho. Hiérvalas en agua hasta que se suavicen. Escurra. Caliente el azúcar y agua en un sartén hasta que se disuelva. Cueza en ella la cáscara de naranja a fuego lento durante 30 minutos. Deje que la mezcla se enfríe y luego vierta el azúcar granulado y decore con ella los pastelitos. Disfrútelos.
Autora: Kathy Keatley Garvey. Adaptado al español por Leticia Irigoyen.
In addition, the number of underrepresented minorities — black, Latino and Native American students — who took the tests is higher in California than elsewhere: 38.9% of test takers in the state compared with 26.2% of all test takers, according to 2015 results from the College Board.
The AP program allows high school students to take high-level classes for college credit. It also provides a boost for college admission and can help students more quickly place in advanced classes in college.
Black students in California performed significantly better than their counterparts outside the state: Nearly 43% in California had a passing score of 3 or higher out of 5 on at least one exam, compared with 32.3% elsewhere. California Latinos also did better: 53.1% received a 3 or higher on at least one test, compared with 50% elsewhere.
White students in the state also outperformed their peers elsewhere: 73% had a score of 3 or higher on a test, compared with 66% outside the state.
About 71.5% of Asians in the state scored a 3 or higher on a test, compared with 72.2% elsewhere.
The number of students, particularly minorities, taking AP classes and tests is growing, both in California and the country. Districts are removing stringent entrance requirements such as grades, admission tests and teacher recommendations that disproportionately keep students of color out of these classes.
Making these classes available to more minority students is a positive move despite the fact that scores may decrease when that happens, said Nicole Mirra, an assistant professor in English education at the University of Texas at El Paso who has studied disparities among California high schools.
Whether or not they pass the test, the students are exposed to higher academic standards and classrooms in which college is considered a viable option for them, she said.
To ensure that these students succeed, however, districts should start preparing low-income students and students of color for AP classes as early as elementary school and continue that support in AP classrooms, Mirra said.
The racial makeup of AP classes in L.A. Unified has changed from 60% Latino in 2007-2008, to 68% in 2014-2015, while the white and Asian populations have decreased. Black students continue to represent only 7% of AP students, even though they are 10% of the student population.
In L.A. Unified, the pass rate was lower for black and Latino students: 21.7% and 33.5%, respectively.
It's difficult to explain the discrepancies without more data, said Patricia Gandara, an education professor and co-director of the Civil Rights Project at UCLA.
Gandara said she would like to see data that show the income levels of the racial groups taking the tests; the College Board said that information will be available next month.
“We have tremendous wealth and we have tremendous poverty” in California, Gandara said.
Students from higher-income black and Latino families could account for the better results because the number of those students taking AP classes remains relatively low. Additionally, Gandara said, they may have the parental support to encourage them to enroll in AP classes.
L.A. Unified's performance might rely on a number of factors, Gandara said. The district has a much higher poor population than the state: three-fourths of L.A. Unified students are on free or reduced-price lunch, a poverty indicator, compared with 59% in the
Additionally, the L.A. Unified numbers don't include results from independent charter high schools, which had nearly 43,000 students last year and are growing. Those independently run campuses have been shown to take better-performing students from low-income and minority communities, Gandara said, adding that that trend could skew the district's results downward.
Source: Published originally on The Los Angeles as Black and Latino students in California score better on AP tests than peers elsewhere by Sonali Kohli, September 2, 2015.