The four-year grant, "Ecobiology, Impact, and Management of Grapevine Red Blotch Virus and Its Vector(s) in California and Oregon Vineyards," from the U.S. Department of Agriculture's National Institute of Food and Agriculture (USDA-NIFA), continues through August 2023.
“Red blotch is a huge new problem for the grape industry, and this is the first large government grant to study it,” said project director Anita Oberholster, Cooperative Extension specialist in the UC Davis Department of Viticulture and Enology. “We will be working in partnership to take the first steps to understand the disease and develop sustainable management practices to support the grape industry.”
Oberholster said the virus affects both white and red grape varieties and can have a "significant impact on wine quality." Integrated pest management specialist Frank Zalom, distinguished professor in the UC Davis Department of Entomology and Nematology, and Rachael Goodhue, professor and chair, UC Davis Agricultural and Resource Economics, serve as co-directors.
In a greenhouse study in 2016, members of the Zalom lab and his USDA-ARS research collaborator Mysore ‘Suhdi' Sudarshana of the UC Davis Department of Plant Pathology found that the three-cornered alfalfa hopper, Spissistilus festinus, transmitted the virus. Prior to their discovery, the treehopper was considered only an occasional pest due to its feeding and egg laying that girdled stems, causing the portion of the plant above the girdle to turn red on red grape varieties.
In their successful grant application, the scientists wrote that grapevine red blotch virus (GRBV) is a prominent disease found in the majority of grape growing regions in California and Oregon. "The grape industry currently lacks best practices for detecting and preventing spread of GRBV within and among vineyards. The discovery of S. festinus as a vector of GRBV significantly increased the possibility of better understanding the epidemiology of GRBD and ultimately its management. However, GRBD spread also occurs in vineyards where S. festinus has not been found. Therefore, information on potential additional vector species in these regions is paramount."
"Replanted vineyards in California and Oregon have experienced reinfections and a better understanding on the prevalence of GRBV and assessment of risk factors are needed," they wrote. "Proposed research will address knowledge gaps involving the epidemiology of the virus as driven by studies on its vectors and determining how the disease affects grapevine performance and grape quality. The economic impact of GRBV infection on producers and nurseries will also be determined. Sustainable GRBV management strategies developed from the project will be implemented to enhance economic and social impacts and to reduce the impact on environment. This project brings together researchers, extension specialists and stakeholders from CA and OR to help solve a significant new problem facing this valuable specialty crops industry. Outreach activities will be extended to the other states and can thus impact the grape industry in the country."
(Editor's Note: UC Davis News Service contributed to this story and the leaf photo)
They are Frank Zalom, distinguished professor of entomology, UC Davis Department of Entomology and Nematology and a past president of the Entomological Society of America (ESA); Walter Leal, distinguished professor, UC Davis Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, and a past chair of the Department of Entomology and Nematology; and Joanna Chiu, associate professor and vice chair, UC Davis Department of Entomology and Nematology. More than 2000 attendees are registered.
On behalf of ESA, Zalom is co-organizing and co-chairing a joint conference with Antonio Panizzi, a past president and international delegate of the Entomological Society of Brazil. That event, to take place the day before the XXVII Congresso Brasileiro and X Congresso Latino-Americano meeting, will involve developing a “Grand Challenge Agenda for Entomology in South America.
Zalom will speak on “The American Experience with the Grand Challenge Agenda in Entomology.” In addition, ESA president Michael Parrella, dean of the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences at the University of Idaho and a former chair of the UC Davis Department of Entomology and Nematology, will provide an update on the 2018 ESA annual meeting, set Nov. 11-14 in Vancouver, B. C. Speakers also will include the presidents of the entomological societies of Argentina, Peru and Brazil.
Leal, a native of Brazil, will present the opening lecture of the joint conference of the XXVII Brazilian Congress and X Latin American Congress of Entomology on “Insect Vectors: Science with Applications in Agriculture and Medicine,” on Sunday, Sept. 2. This will be his fourth opening lecture—a record—at the Brazilian Congresses of Entomology (2004 in Gramado; 2008 in Uberlandia; and 2014 in Goiania).
Both Zalom, an integrated pest management specialist, and Chiu, who specializes in molecular genetics of animal behavior, will speak on their research at the joint meeting. Zalom will deliver a plenary address on “Drosophila suzukii in the United States” on Sept. 5 and Chiu will keynote a symposium on Sept. 3; her lecture is titled “Circadian Clock Research Applied to Agriculture and Public Health.” She also will give a second lecture: "Drosophila as an Insect Model" on Sept. 3.
The ESA Governing Board today announced that Zalom will succeed John Trumble, distinguished professor of entomology at UC Riverside. Trumble, editor-in-chief for 20 years, informed ESA in late 2017 of his intent to leave the role in 2018. In January, the journal's editorial board launched a widespread search for his successor.
A 43-member of ESA and the 2014 president, Zalom will serve a five-year term as editor-in-chief. The journal publishes research on the economic significance of insects. It includes sections on apiculture and social insects, insecticides, biological control, household and structural insects, crop protection, forest entomology, and other topics.
"Dr. Frank Zalom's career can be viewed as a model of applied entomology derived from an understanding of basic biology, and he is an ideal choice to be the new editor-in-chief of the Journal of Economic Entomology (JEE)," said ESA President Michael Parrella in an ESA news release.
"His unparalleled and broad expertise will serve to continue the journal's growth as the publication of choice for applied entomological research and to build upon the legacy of Dr. John Trumble," said Parrella, dean of the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences at Idaho State University and former professor and chair, UC Davis Department of Entomology and Nematology.
Zalom's 40-year career intersects entomological research, teaching, and application. He served 16 years as director of the University of California Statewide Integrated Pest Management Program (UC IPM) and is the only entomologist in the UC system to receive a simultaneous appointment in teaching, research, and extension. His focuses his research on IPM of agricultural crops.
"I couldn't be more pleased to be selected the next editor-in-chief of the Journal of Economic Entomology," Zalom said. "I have spent the last 40 years of my career trying to solve economically important problems caused by arthropods using an IPM approach, and this journal, as well as ESA's other journals, have always served as a primary foundation and outlet for research conducted in my lab. As I approach the end of my career, I hope to be able to dedicate my efforts to enhancing our Society's influence on science and its application to addressing some of the most important entomological challenges that affect communities worldwide. JEE is uniquely positioned to do exactly that."
Zalom joined the UC system in 1980, serving in roles ranging from extension IPM coordinator to professor to vice chair of the department to advisor of the UC Davis International Agricultural Development Graduate Group. He has authored more than 335 journal articles and book chapters. including "Food, Crop Pests, and the Environment" published by APS Press.
His career includes serving as major professor for 12 Ph.D students and seven master's degree students.
Zalom is a fellow of the California Academy of Sciences, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the Royal Entomological Society, and ESA. Among his numerous honors: a Fulbright Senior Research Scholarship (1992-93), the ESA Achievement Award in Extension (1992), the ESA Recognition Award (2002), the James H. Meyer Award from UC Davis for teaching, research and service (2004), the Entomological Foundation IPM Team Award (2008), the Entomological Foundation Excellence in IPM Award (2010), Outstanding Mentor Award from the UC Davis Consortium for Women and Research (2013) and the C. W. Woodworth Award (2011), the highest award given by the Pacific Branch of ESA (PBESA).
More recently, Zalom received a lifetime achievement award, presented at the 9th International IPM Symposium, held March 19-22 in Baltimore. Last month he played a key role in a U.S. Congressional briefing held in the Rayburn House Office Building to raise awareness for and increase understanding of areawide integrated pest management (AIPM) and the benefits of a comprehensive pest management policy, particularly as it relates to invasive species.
In addition to serving as president of the 7000-member ESA in 2014, Zalom served as the PBESA president (2001), and president of the Entomological Foundation in 2015. He continues to serve as a member of the Entomological Foundation board of directors and ESA's Science Policy Committee.
Zalom, who received his doctorate in entomology from UC Davis in 1978, holds two degrees in zoology and ecology from Arizona State University (bachelor of science, 1973, and master's degree, 1974).
Founded in 1889 and headquartered in Annapolis, Md., ESA is the world's largest organization serving the professional and scientific needs of entomologists and people in related disciplines.
The purpose of the congressional briefing was to raise awareness for and increase understanding of areawide integrated pest management (AIPM) and the benefits of a comprehensive pest management policy, particularly as it relates to invasive species, Zalom said.
A newly authored bill by Rep. Tulsi Gabbard (D-Hawaii) and Rep. Ted Yoho (R-Florida) seeks a broader expansion of AIPM and a broader invasive species policy. The bill, the Areawide Integrated Pest Management (AIPM) Act of 2018 (H.R. 5411), would amend the Agricultural Research, Extension and Education Reform Act of 1998 with respect to enabling competitive grants for certain areawide integrated pest management projects, and for other purposes.
Zalom moderated the panel and delivered a presentation on the history of AIPM and the need to manage some pests on an areawide basis. AIPM is particularly useful for sites that are not suitable for management on an individual basis, such as natural and urban areas or for public health pests. It is similar to IPM, Zalom said, in that its focus is on implementing systems-based strategies that utilize multiple tactics which emphasize prevention, avoidance, monitoring, and suppression using practices that are biologically-based and reduce risk to human health and the environment. However, its focus is on managing pest populations in all the habitats in which they occur. It involves multi-year strategic planning and organization, and it tends to utilize technologies that may be difficult or less effective when used on a limited scale.
Zalom drew attention to past areawide successes in controlling the yellow fever mosquito, the screw worm fly, and tephritid fruit flies in Hawaii. He also described the recently concluded areawide program that targeted the European grapevine moth which had been introduced into northern California, threatening the state's wine industry. First found in Napa County in 2009, the moth was eventually detected in nine California counties. A partnership that included the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), California Department of Food and Agriculture, County Agricultural Commissioner's Offices, grape growers, and University of California Cooperative Extension Advisers and specialists implemented an applied research and public outreach and engagement program that ultimately resulted in the elimination of the insect from throughout these grape-growing areas. (See information on the award-winning European Grapevine Moth Team.)
Gabbard, in particular, wants to protect Hawaii's coffee industry from the recently introduced coffee berry borer, and Yoho, the U.S. citrus industry from the Asian citrus psyllid and the devastating bacterial disease that it vectors.
Partner host organizations included the ESA, Weed Science Society of America and the Association of Public and Land-Grant Universities (APLU).
Four panelists—Faith Oi of the University of Florida, Lee Van Wychen of the Weed Science Society of America, Paula Shrewsbury of the University of Maryland and Kelley Tilmon of Ohio State University--zeroed in on urban pests, aquatic pests, forestry pests, and agricultural pests, respectively, and the industry impacts.
- Oi elaborated on mosquitoes, including the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, a major public health issue.
- Van Wychen discussed the waterhyacinth, an aquatic pest in the Sacramento/San Joaquin Delta and Everglades in Florida.
- Shrewsbury drew attention to the emerald ash borer, a pest in both urban and rural forests
- Tilmon covered the agricultural pest, the brown marmorated stink bug.
The panelists focused on various geographic topics to help Congressional offices from across the nation understand why AIPM is relevant to them and to support AIPM-related policies.
AIPM strategies not only offer important economic, health and environmental benefits, Zalom said, but the Food Quality Protection Act of 1996 directs federal agencies to use IPM techniques in carrying out pest management activities.
The briefing drew representatives from congressional offices with invasive species or pest management priorities, as well as the House Committees on Natural Resources; Agriculture; Interior, Environment, and related agencies; Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources; the corresponding Senate committees; and relevant caucuses on invasive species and agricultural research.
Federal agencies represented included the Department of the Interior; USDA's National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA), Agriculture and Food Research Initiative (AFRI), Agricultural Research Service (ARS), Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS). Forest Service, and Office of Pest Management Policy; and the United States Environmental Protection Agency.
The AIPM Act of 2018 creates a framework within the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture Crop and Pest Management Program to coordinate AIPM projects with other federal agencies and cross-institutional teams, including farmers, ranchers, and land managers.
The objectives, as cited by the bill's authors:
- To support long term and sustainable solutions to reduce invasive species impacts on agriculture, including grazing, dairy farming and natural resources
- Increase the return on investments for farmers, ranchers and land managers by providing them with multiple invasive species management options
- Empower end-users—farmers, ranchers and land managers—to take a larger role in creating solutions for their agricultural business and industries
- Support efficient use of federal dollars through competition to control and/or eradicate invasive species
- Protect human health and the environment
Lifetime achievement awards went to Frank Zalom, distinguished professor of entomology, UC Davis Department of Entomology and Nematology, who directed the UC Statewide IPM Program (UC IPM) for 16 years; and to Pete Goodell, Cooperative Extension adviser emeritus and UC IPM emeritus.
An international IPM award of recognition went to the European Grapevine Moth Team, headed by Lucia Varela, UC IPM advisor, and including Professor Zalom.
Officials lauded the honorees with these tributes:
"Frank Zalom began his career as an assistant professor for the Department. of Entomology, Fisheries, and Wildlife at University of Minnesota, St. Paul, in 1979. Over the years his career has spanned a wide range of positions and leadership to IPM programs worldwide. In 1986, he became the director of UC Statewide IPM Program and directed it for 16 years to raise the UC IPM program to its 'gold standard' of IPM information in the world. He received a Joint Resolution from the California State Legislature lauding his efforts to advance IPM.
"Frank Zalom's beliefs for IPM are four-fold:
- To solve pest control problems using effective, biologically-based pest management approaches
- To provide IPM leadership at the regional, state, national and international levels
- To provide a vigorous research program in entomology, especially related to IPM and invasive species; and
- To educate a new generation of IPM practitioners through effective undergraduate teaching and graduate student mentoring.
"He believes that advancing the science and implementation of IPM will reduce the impact of pests and pest control on agriculture and the environment. This is critical in California. 'California agriculture is a $42.6 billion industry that generates at least $100 billion in related economic industry,' according to the California Department of Food and Agriculture, and California grows more than a third of the country's vegetables and two-thirds of the nation's fruits and nuts.
"He has pursued these goals through a combination of fundamental studies related to pest biology, physiology, and community ecology; problem-focused, hypothesis-driven management research; and community-oriented extension efforts. His research focuses on exploiting weaknesses in the biology of a pest species and its niche in the agroecosystem or the broader landscape. He builds multidisciplinary research and outreach teams to pursue innovative ideas needed to solve major IPM challenges. His lab's research has addressed seventeen invasive species introductions: among them southern green stink bug, silverleaf whitefly, glassy-winged sharpshooter, olive fly, invasive salt cedar, light brown apple moth, spotted wing drosophila, and most recently European grape vine moth, brown marmorated stink bug and Bagrada bug." (See more about his career on UC Davis Depatment of Entomology and Nematology website.)
"Early in his career, Goodell focused on reduction of use of broad-spectrum insecticides and development of easy to implement scouting methods. For example, he was instrumental in the development and adoption of time saving presence/absence sampling for mites in cotton. Mid-career, Goodell helped to pioneer year-round IPM programs because of his collaborations with the Natural Resources Conservation Service. Year-round IPM programs describe pest management activities important for that crop stage or season and addresses key pest management for multiple pests. This departed from addressing one pest to a more holistic program focused on prevention and decision-making. UC IPM now has year-round programs for 25 crops and recently expanded the concept to develop seasonal landscape IPM checklists for four eco-regions in California. Later, Goodell was one of the first to incorporate social science concepts regarding the drivers of change in behavior into IPM learning and adoption. He was a founding member of the group that developed the Toolkit for Assessing IPM Outcomes and Impacts.
"To end his career, Goodell is leading a California Department of Pesticide Regulation (DPR) funded project to host discussions on pests, pesticides, and IPM broadly throughout California. At the foundation for this project, it assumes that pests are part of every persons' experience and pest management is necessary to protect society. The hope is the project will generate a consensus statement about risks from pests and pesticides and provide direction for the future of IPM in California. That will be an incredible final accomplishment for Dr. Goodell's career and for IPM everywhere." (See more about his career on the UC ANR website.)
European Grapevine Moth Team
"The European Grapevine Moth Team was selected for an IPM Team Award for achieving the eradication of European grapevine moth only six years after its discovery in 2009. Team members helped growers in infested counties to monitor the pest and apply control measures on a timely basis. The team's research and extension efforts helped growers avoid losses to the pest every year until it was finally eradicated in 2016.
"In September 2009, European grapevine moth (EGVM) was detected in grapes in Napa County and confirmed by USDA on Oct.7, 2009. European grapevine moth larvae bore holes into grape berries directly damaging the fruit and allowing entry of fungal pathogens. The European Grapevine Moth Team, achieved the eradication of European grapevine moth only six years after its discovery.
"The team mounted a multi-pronged program to study the biology and life cycle under California conditions, assisted and informed growers to monitor and control this pest, and addressed regulatory questions regarding detection and delimitation. The team designed and conducted 15 trials to evaluate winter mortality factors, validate monitoring tools, determine the host range, evaluate organic and conventional insecticides, and study larval mortality during the winemaking process."
The European Grapevine Moth Team includes Lucia Varela, UC IPM advisor for the North Coast; Frank Zalom,IPM specialist and distinguished professor of entomology, UC Davis Department of Entomology and Nematology; Monica Cooper, UC Cooperative Extension viticulture adviser in Napa County; Walter Bentley, UC IPM entomologist emeritus; Larry Bettiga, UC Cooperative Extension adviser in Monterey County; Kent Daane, UC Cooperative Extension specialist in UC Berkeley Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management; Rhonda Smith, UC Cooperative Extension adviser in Sonoma County; Robert VanSteenwyk, UC Cooperative Extension specialist in UC Berkeley's Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management; and Joyce Strand, UC Davis IPM Academic Coordinator emeritus.