IPM - Integrative Pest Management
IPM programs combine management approaches for greater effectiveness. It is a process you can use to solve pest problems while minimizing risks to people and the environment. IPM can be used to manage all kinds of pests. UC ANR IPM WEBSITE
The most effective, long-term way to manage pests is by using a combination of methods that work better together than separately. Approaches for managing pests are often grouped in the following categories:
Biological control is the use of natural enemies - predators, parasites, pathogens, and competitors - to control pests and their damage. Invertebrates, plant pathogens, nematodes, weeds, and vertebrates have many natural enemies.
Cultural controls are practices that reduce pest establishment, reproduction, dispersal, and survival. For example, changing irrigation practices can reduce pest problems, since too much water can increase root disease and weeds.
Mechanical and Physical Controls
Mechanical and physical controls kill a pest directly, block pests out, or make the environment unsuitable for it. Traps for rodents are examples of mechanical control. Physical controls include mulches for weed management, steam sterilization of the soil for disease management, or barriers such as screens to keep birds or insects out.
Chemical control is the use of pesticides. In IPM, pesticides are used ony when needed and in combination with other approaches for more effective, long-term control. Pesticides are selected and applied in a way that minimizes their possible harm to people, nontarget organisms, and the environment. With IPM you'll use the most selective pesticide that will do the job and be the safest for other organisms and for air, soil, and water quality; use pesticides in bate stations rather than sprays; or spot-spray a few weeds instead of an entire area.
Quick Tips Library
Quick Tips offer quick advice related to pests and environment-friendly gardening practices. Many are abbreviated versions of our more detailed Pest Notes series. Pest Alerts highlight new pests that are invading California. Both are available online and in a downloadable PDF version that prints as a single page. Go To Library
Artticles from other Universities
University of Kentucky
Recognizing Insect Larval Types
Insects develop from egg to adult in a process called metamorphosis which may be generally classified as either gradual or complete. Gradual metamorphosis has three stages – egg, nymph, and adult. Nymphs generally look much like their adult stage except for being smaller and lacking wings, if the species has winged adults. Common examples include stink bugs, grasshoppers, and cockroaches. read more Recognizing Insect Larval Types_University of Kentucky