Virginia creeper leafhopper (VCLH) first arrived in California's Sacramento Valley and Sierra Foothill regions in the 1980s. It was recently introduced into the North Coast, where a lack of biological control led to severe outbreaks in 2011-2012. The native Western grape leafhoppers are typically controlled well by native parasitoids. When chemical controls are necessary, applications occur later in the season, in August. In the absence of biological control, chemical controls for VCLH were required, needing to go on earlier in the season, in May or June. When the first outbreaks of VCLH occurred, many growers responded by putting on multiple late season sprays to little effect. Some certified organic growers resorted to conventional pesticides and lost their organic certification.
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