Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources
Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources
Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources
University of California
Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources

Elizabeth E Grafton-Cardwell Ph.D.

Photo of Elizabeth E Grafton-Cardwell Ph.D.
Director of Lindcove REC & Research Entomologist UC Riverside
Kearney Agricultural Research & Extension Center
9240 S. Riverbend Ave.
Parlier, CA 93648
(559) 592-2408 Ext. 152 & (559) 646-6591
eegraftoncardwell@ucanr.edu Create VCard



Research Statement
My research and extension program stuies strategies for Integrated Pest Management (IPM) methods to manage arthropod pests of citrus in the San Joaquin Valley of California. We establish or verify economic thresholds for key pests, study the efficacy of natural enemies, maximize the use of biological and cultural control methods, develop pheromone trapping systems, screen the efficacy and selectivity of new insecticides and test pests for resistance to insecticides.  In recent years I have focused on invasive pests such as Asian citrus psyllid and pests of export significance such as Fuller rose beetle.  

As of June 2006 I am also Director of Lindcove Research and Extension Center in Exeter California. This 175 acre Center supports research projects on citrus breeding, horticulture and pest management.


Ph.D. Entomology, UC Berkeley. 1985
M.S. Entomology, Purdue University. 1980
A.B. Biology, UC Berkeley. 1978


Citrus Integrated Pest Management

Areas of Expertise (click to see all ANR academics with this expertise)


Non-Peer Reviewed

  • Grafton-Cardwell B and Ouyang Y (1994). Releasing predatory mites to control citrus red mite and two spotted spider mites in citrus greenhouses. Plant Protection Quarterly. 4: 5-7.
  • Grafton-Cardwell B (1994). Resistance of California red and yellow scale in the San Joaquin Valley of California. Resistant Pest Management. 6: 7-9.
  • Grafton-Cardwell B (1994). Status of insecticide resistance in armored scale insects in San Joaquin Valley citrus. Subtropical Fruit News.
  • Grafton-Cardwell EE and Reagan CA (1993). California red scale pesticide efficacy trial; 1992. Insecticide and Acaricide Tests. 18: 73-74.
  • Haney PB, Morse JG, et al. (1993). IPM: The Crown Butte project. Citrograph. 78: 13-16.
  • Haney PB, Morse JB, et al. (1993). The rationale for adopting IPM. Citrograph. 78: 7;9-12.
  • Grafton-Cardwell EE and Ouyang Y (1993). Toxicity of four insecticides to various populations of the predacious mite; Euseius tularensis Congdon (Acarina: Phytoseiidae) from San Joaquin Valley California citrus. J. Agric. Ent. 10: 21-29.
  • Lewis, T., B..L. Parker, et al. (1993 1995). Manipulation of the predacious mite; Euseius tularensis. Proceedings of the 1993 International Conference on Thysanoptera, Towards Understanding Thrips Management, Thrips Biology and Management, Burlington, VT, Plenum Press.
  • Luck RF, Morse JG, et al. (1992). Citrus IPM - It works! California Grower. 16: 25-27.
  • Grafton-Cardwell EE, Leigh TF, et al. (1992). Cotton aphids have become resistant to commonly used pesticides. Calif. Agric. 46: 4-7.
  • Ouyang Y, Grafton-Cardwell EE, et al. (1992). Effects of various pollens on development; survivorship; and reproduction of Euseius tularensis (Acari: Phytoseiidae). Environ. Ent. 21: 1371-1376.
  • Grafton-Cardwell B and Pehrson J (1992). Narrow range oils in citrus pest programs. Citrograph. 77: 19-20.
  • Grafton-Cardwell EE (1992). Pesticide resistance in armored scale of San Joaquin Valley citrus. KAC Plant Protection Quarterly. 2: 7-9.
  • Haney PB, Morse JG, et al. (1992). Reducing insecticide use and energy costs in citrus pest management. UC IPM Publication. University of California Statewide IPM Project. 15: 1-62.
  • Tian T, Grafton-Cardwell EE, et al. (1992). Resistance of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) to cyhexatin and fenbutatin-oxide in California pears. J. Econ. Ent. 85: 2088-2095.
  • Grafton-Cardwell EE and Ouyang Y (1992). Responses of susceptible and resistant Eusieus tularensis Congdon to Ac 801;757 and AC 303630; 1991. Insecticide and Acaricide Tests. 17: 391.
  • Leigh, T.P., P. Goodell, et al. (1991). Cotton pest management guidelines. Insects and mites. UC IPM Pest Management Guidelines: Cotton. Publ. 3444. Oakland CA, University of California Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources.: 70 pp.
  • Grafton-Cardwell EE (1991). Geographical and temporal variation in response to insecticides in various life stages of Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididae) infesting cotton in california. J. Econ. Ent. 84: 741-749.
  • Grafton-Cardwell EE, Granett J, et al. (1991). Influence of dispersal from almonds on the population dynamics and acaricide resistance frequencies of spider mite infesting neighboring cotton. Exp. Applied Acarol. 10: 187-212.
  • Keena MA, Grafton-Cardwell E, et al. (1991). Variability in response of laboratory-reared and field-collected populations of Tetranychus spp. (Acari: Tetranychidae) to hexythiazox. J. Econ. Ent. 84: 1128-1134.
  • O'Brien PJ, Hardee DD, et al. (1990). Screening of Aphis gossypii. Insecticide and Acaricide Tests. 15: 254-255.
  • Grafton-Cardwell EE, Granett J, et al. (1989). Development and evaluation of a rapid bioassay for monitoring propargite resistance in Tetranychus species (Acari: Tetranychidae) on cotton. J. Econ. Ent. 82: 706-715.
  • Grafton-Cardwell EE, Eash JA, et al. (1988). "Isozyme differentiation of Tetranychus pacificus from T. urticae and T. turkestani (Acari: Tetranychidae) in laboratory and field populations." J. Econ. Ent 81(3): 770-775.
  • Grafton-Cardwell EE, Dennehy TJ, et al. (1987). Managing dicofol and propargite resistance in spider mites infesting San Joaquin Valley cotton. UC IPM Publication. 5: 1-10.
  • Dennehy, T.J., E.E. Grafton-Cardwell, et al. (1987). Practitioner-assessable bioassay for detection of dicofol resistance in spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 80: 998-1003.
  • Grafton-Cardwell EE, Granett J, et al. (1987). Quick tests for pesticide resistance in spider mites. Calif. Agric. 41: 8-10.
  • Grafton-Cardwell EE, Granett J, et al. (1987). Spider mite species (Acari: Tetranychidae) response to propargite: basis for an acaricide resistance management program. J. Econ. Ent. 80: 579-587.
  • Grafton-Cardwell EE and Hoy MA (1986). Genetic improvement of common green lacewing; Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae): selection for carbaryl resistance. Environ. Ent. 15: 1130-1136.
  • Grafton-Cardwell EE and Hoy MA (1986). Selection of the common green lacewing for resistance to carbaryl. Calif. Agric. 40: 22-24.
  • Grafton-Cardwell, Elizabeth E. and Marjorie A. Hoy (1985). "Intraspecific variability in response to pesticides in the common green lacewing; Chrysoperla carnea." Hilgardia 53(6): 1-32.
  • Grafton-Cardwell EE and Hoy MA (1985). Short-term effects of permethrin and fenvalerate on oviposition by Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae). J. Econ. Ent. 78: 955-959.
  • Grafton-Cardwell EE and Hoy MA (1983). Comparative toxicity of avermectin B1 to the predator Metaseiulus occidentalis (Nesbitt) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and the spider mites Tetranychus urticae Koch and Panonychus ulmi (Koch) (Acari: Tetranychidae). J. Econ. Ent. 76: 1216-1220.
  • Grafton-Cardwell EE (1982). Ovipositional response of Meteorus leviventris (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) to various densities of Agrotis ipsilon (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Environ. Ent. 11: 1026-1028.
  • Grafton-Cardwell EE and Vail HD (1980). Selected factors influencing the number of eggs laid during each ovipositional attack by Meteorus leviventris (Hymenoptera:Braconidae). Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science for 1979. 89: 218-224.

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